An important role in the process plays spliceosome.
Scientists Exeter University (UK) has identified a group of genes that play a key role in the aging process. They regulate the splicing factors – molecules that define the path of maturation of RNA.
This writes the Chronicle.info with reference to MedicalXpress.
The called splicing process cutting out the nucleotide sequences (its introns are) of RNA molecules and stitching the remaining (exons), resulting in the maturation of the molecule. Therefore, introns do not carry information about the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide (protein). Sometimes alternative splicing occurs when the exons are cut or remain introns, resulting in the same gene can encode different polypeptides. An important role is played by spliceosome – complexes of RNA and proteins.
The splicing factors that determine the activity of spliceosome, in turn, are regulated by transcription factors – other proteins that bind DNA and can activate or “turn off” these genes.
The researchers showed that blocking signaling pathways ERK and AKT contributes to decrease in aging cells and rejuvenate cell cultures. A similar effect can be achieved through the inhibition of key components of these pathways – FOX01 and ETV6 genes encoding transcription factors. In this case, the researchers also noted the increasing number of splicing factors.
Scientists hope that the results of the study will help develop methods of combating aging and associated diseases, such as chronic inflammation or cancer.