In Kiev on 29 November, presented a facsimile edition of the manuscript Lavrikovskoe gospel of the XIV century, the original of which is stored in the collections of the National Museum in Krakow. This exact replica of the original printed within a large-scale project for re-publication of ancient monuments of Ukrainian literature who find themselves in foreign libraries and museums. Facsimile Lavrikovskoe gospel is the fourth book published in the framework of this project (it was founded by one of the capital’s publishing house). In the course of studying of the manuscript of the Ukrainian scientists made a sensational discovery.
We were surprised to find that Lavrikovskoe the gospel is not that other, as a kind of textbook, which in the XIV century, aspiring scribes and illustrators of books learned their craft, — told the “FACTS,” senior researcher of the Institute of manuscripts of the National scientific library of Ukraine Vernadsky, doctor of historical Sciences Lyudmila Gnatenko. — Such we have not faced.
— Why did you decide that this training manual?
— Handwriting analysis showed that Lavrikovskoe the gospel was rewritten at least five people. There are many words that I had started to write one but kept the other. Managed to install only the teacher’s name novice scribes — Ieva. This name is mentioned in the margins of books. In deference to mentor the students depicted on one of the pages of the Holy Ieva.
A number of pages of the Gospels look as if parts of it cut off. But it is not, because of the loss of text. Instead of the standard sheets of parchment used trim is just what you need to study beginners.
Usually in manuscript of the Gospels was placed on four illustrations. In Gavrishevka gospel of their 18. What does this mean? That mentor gave his disciples the opportunity to practice. It is significant that in the pages of this book were 25 empty seats. From the context it is clear that there were plans to place illustration, but for some reason did not.
— How old the book was in Poland?
— In the XIX century the monks Lavrikovskoe monastery, located on the territory of modern Grodno region in Belarus, gave it to the Polish magnate Czartoryski. By the time this ancient monastery was Catholic, but it was originally Orthodox.
Once the monastery is located in present Grodno oblast, it turns out that this gospel is a monument of Belarusian written language?
— No. A specialist in ancient manuscripts Viktor Moiseenko from Kiev, carefully studied the text of the gospel Lavrikovskoe, found plenty of evidence that it was copied media old Ukrainian language. I should say that this gospel is written in Church Slavonic. But the scribes made the text a significant number of errors. These errors — ukrainianism.
— How an ancient manuscript was delivered in Belarus?
Is unknown. We know that he for some reason was in Gavrishevka the monastery, and stayed there for about 500 years. Interestingly, on the sidelines of the gospel there are a large number of business — legal, commercial nature of the records left at different times.
— How to determine the date of writing the old books?
Some experts believe that it was created in the late thirteenth century, but this assessment is incorrect. A number of facts indicate that it was written in the fourteenth century — not until 1356.
— In a facsimile edition of the gospel Lavrikovskoe reproduces all the nuances of the original down to the smallest dashes, — says Director of the publishing house Anna Gorobets. — The contract edition of this facsimile of the old books we signed with the National Museum in Krakow in 2016. So the project took two years.
— The original is written on parchment — the rawhide. What have you printed a copy?
On quite expensive paper, which is specially manufactured for us in Sweden. This paper feels like parchment. Moreover, it is easier than usual.
Why in the facsimile edition are not repeated cover of the original?
— It would be too expensive: the original cover is covered with velvet, embellished with metal details, as well as boxwood, rubies, and turquoise.
The book circulation — 300 copies. Selling it will not. Spread between libraries, scientific centers in Ukraine and abroad. Funded project of the Ukrainian cultural Fund and commercial structures.
The following plan to issue a facsimile edition of the Reims gospel — the written monument of Kievan Rus XI century. Daughter of Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise Anna was are engaged for the king of France, Henry I. Going to the groom, she brought this gospel. Subsequently all the kings of France took an oath on this book. Now the gospel is kept in the city of Reims. The city Council of Reims allowed us to print the facsimile edition of the Reims gospel. After that, the mayor has signed the corresponding contract.
*Photo by Sergei TUSHINO, “FACTS”
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