Syria, devastated by a deadly conflict in Algeria, shaken by a protest novel, Tunisia is the only country that has consolidated its democratization eight years after the outbreak of the “arab Spring”.
Other States, where people descended in the streets to demand democratic reforms, have been pushed into the war, the repression or chaos.
– The spark of tunisia –
On December 17, 2010, the immolation of a tunisian street vendor, tired of the misery and bullying from the police, trigger a popular uprising, crowned on January 14, 2011 by the fall of the regime of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, after 23 years of reign.
In 2014, Tunisia adopted a new Constitution, and then organize parliamentary elections, won by the party’s anti-islamist Nidaa Tounès in front of the islamists of Ennahda, the majority until then. In December, Beji Caid Essebsi is elected president by universal suffrage.
After three major terrorist attacks claimed by the extremist group islamic State (EI) in 2015, the security situation has improved. Legislative and presidential elections are planned for the fall.
– Repression in Egypt –
On January 25, 2011, the beginning of massive demonstrations against Hosni Mubarak, the head of the country for nearly 30 years. After 18 days of popular revolt (nearly 850 dead), the president Mubarak surrenders its powers in February to the army.
In June 2012, Mohamed Morsi, candidate of the muslim brotherhood, was elected president, becoming the first islamist head of State. But after a year marked by crisis and a political protest, it is overthrown by the army led by Abdel Fattah al-Sisi.
The muslim brotherhood will be the subject of a relentless repression. According to Amnesty International, in seven months, 1,400 people were killed, demonstrators islamists for the vast majority.
Elected president in 2014, and then re-elected in 2018, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi are regularly accused by the organizations of defense of human rights have established a regime of ultra-repressive, including against the secular opposition.
– Yemen on the brink of starvation –
January 27, 2011, the beginning of a challenge that will mobilize tens of thousands of protesters demanding the departure of Ali Abdullah Saleh. This yields the power in February 2012 to his vice-president Abd Rabbo Mansour Hadi after 33 years at the helm of the country.
In 2014, rebel shiite Houthis seized large areas including the capital Sana’a. In march 2015, saudi Arabia is the head of an arab coalition to stop the advance of the Houthis.
The conflict has claimed some 10,000 dead, according to the world health Organization. 10 million people are on the brink of starvation.
– Protests in Bahrain –
February 14, 2011, protesters gather in Pearl roundabout in central Manama to demand reform and a better political representation of the shia majority in the country ruled by a sunni monarchy. They remain there nearly a month before being expelled by force. The small kingdom is plagued by sporadic unrest since.
The trial of opponents have multiplied, the NGO defence of human rights denouncing the unfair procedures. Hundreds of dissidents are currently imprisoned, tried, or deprived of their nationality.
– The chaos in Libya –
From 15 to 17 February 2011, the beginning of protests unprecedented against the regime of Muammar Gaddafi violently repressed, particularly in Benghazi, in the East. The uprising became an armed conflict resulted in the fall of Tripoli in August, thanks to the support of Nato. On 20 October, Gaddafi, on the run, is killed in Sirte, his hometown.
The country is now led by two entities, the rival: the new national unity Government, based in Tripoli and recognized by the international community, and a firm, parallel installed in the Is. He is also torn by power struggles between numerous militias.
The ARS has held for months at the city of Sirte, before being chased out by the end of 2016.
– Syria is being ravaged by war –
Syria is devastated by eight years of a war that has claimed more than 370.000 deaths and prompted the exodus of more than 13 million people.
On march 15, 2011, dozens of people marched to the cries of “freedom” in Damascus. Protests calling for democratic changes extend into the country ruled with an iron fist since 1971 by the Assad family, Bashar al-Assad, who succeeded in 2000 of his father Hafez. But repressed in the blood, the dispute turns into an armed insurgency before it could escalate into a total war in 2012.
In 2013-2014, organizations jihadists as the Front al-Nosra, a branch of Al-Qaeda, then the group islamic State (EI) are rising in power, eclipsing the rebels.
Thanks to the military support of its allies, Russia, Iran and lebanese Hezbollah, the regime takes over the territories to the rebels and jihadists, and control today nearly two-thirds of the country.
– Demonstrations in Algeria –
On February 22, 2019, thousands of people are demonstrating against the candidacy for a 5th mandate of Abdelaziz Bouteflika, in power since 1999 and failing health.
Mr. Bouteflika waives the 11 march and will postpone the presidential election scheduled for 18 April, extending of fact sine die of its current mandate. But the protests continue.